Monkeypox Case Definition

Laboratory criterion
A person with a laboratory confirmed monkeypox infection (monkeypox PCR positive).

Clinical criteria
A person who since 15th March 2022 has had, one or more of the following

  • Unexplained recent onset generalised rash
  • A monkeypox compatible vesicular-pustular rash
  • Oro/ano-genital lesions
  • Proctitis (rectal pain/tenesmus)
  • One or more classical symptoms of Monkeypox infection †

Epidemiological criteria
At least one of the following epidemiological links:

  • An epidemiological link to a confirmed or probable case of Monkeypox in the 21 days before symptom onset
  • Is gay, bisexual or other man who has sex with men (gbMSM)
  • Reports multiple (more than 1) sexual partners in the 21 days prior to symptom onset (regardless of sexual orientation)
  • Has a travel history to a monkeypox endemic country* in the 21 days before symptom onset

Case classification
Possible/Suspected case:

Probable case:
Any person meeting the clinical criteria with an epidemiological link

Confirmed case:
Any person meeting the laboratory criterion

† Acute illness with fever (>38.5OC), headache, myalgia, arthralgia, back pain, lymphadenopathy, asthenia

* Monkeypox endemic countries are: Benin, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Ghana (identified in animals only), Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, the Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, and South Sudan

Version 2.5

Last updated: 2 August 2022