Mpox (monkeypox) Case Definition

Laboratory criterion
A person with a laboratory confirmed mpox (monkeypox) infection (mpox/monkeypox PCR positive).

Clinical criteria
A person who has had, one or more of the following

  • Unexplained recent onset generalised rash
  • A mpox (monkeypox) compatible vesicular-pustular rash
  • Oro/ano-genital lesions
  • Proctitis (rectal pain/tenesmus)
  • One or more classical symptoms of Monkeypox infection †

Epidemiological criteria
At least one of the following epidemiological links in the 21 days before symptom onset:

  • An epidemiological link to a confirmed or probable case of mpox (monkeypox)
  • Has a travel history to an mpox (monkeypox) endemic country*

Case classification
Possible/Suspected case:

Probable case:
Any person meeting the clinical criteria with an epidemiological link

Confirmed case:
Any person meeting the laboratory criterion

† Acute illness with fever (>38.5OC), headache, myalgia, arthralgia, back pain, lymphadenopathy, asthenia

* Mpox (monkeypox) endemic countries are: Benin, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Ghana (identified in animals only), Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, the Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, and South Sudan

Version 2.8

Last updated: 19th January 2023