Typhoid (Salmonella Typhi)

Clinical criteria
Any person with at least one of the following two:

  • Onset of sustained fever
  • At least two of the following four:
    • Headache
    • Relative bradycardia
    • Non productive cough
    • Diarrhoea, constipation, malaise or abdominal pain

Laboratory criteria
Isolation of Salmonella Typhi from a clinical specimen
Detection of Salmonella Typhi nucleic acid in a clinical specimen*

Epidemiological criteria
At least one of the following two:
- Human to human transmission
- Exposure to a common source

Case classification
A. Possible case
B. Probable case
Any person meeting the clinical criteria and with an epidemiological link
C. Confirmed case
Any person meeting the clinical and the laboratory criteria

*Note: If the nucleic acid amplification test used does NOT discriminate between different Salmonella enterica serotypes, detection of salmonella DNA from a stool sample should be notified as a case of salmonella enteritis.

Current as of: 22 January 2019

Historic Case Definitions